Respond to the each of the following in a minimum of 75-100 words:
1.A neurotransmitter is a chemical that is released from neuron endings to cause either excitation or inhibition of an adjacent neuron or an effector cell, such as a muscle cell or gland (Hine, 2002). There are four main groups of neurotransmitters based on their chemical structure such as amines, amino acids, neuropeptides, and acetylcholine . The main two that are found in mammals are acetylcholine and norepinephrine (Hine, 2002). Acetylcholine , which are found throughout the nervous system, is derived from choline and is chemically unique among neurotransmitters. It plays a role in motivation, arousal, attention, learning, and memory. Norepinephrine is found in the sympathetic nervous system and it plays a role a persons mood, alertness, and reaction time. Dopamine fits in the category of amines and it is released from the body when a person experiences eating satisfying food, sexual activity, or drug use. Histamine is also an amines and it promotes wakefulness (Passani. et. al,2007).
Hine, R. (2002). Neurotransmitter. In Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology. New York: Facts On File. Retrieved February 7, 2020, from online.infobase.com/Auth/Index?aid=18566&itemid=WE40&articleId=283824.
Passani MB, Giannoni P, Bucherelli C, Baldi E, Blandina P. Biochem Pharmacol. (2007). Histamine in the brain: beyond sleep and memory. Pubmed. Retrieved February 7, 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17241615
2. There are several different neurotransmitters in the brain and body. Each of them effects different behaviors and functioning in the human body. Four neurotransmitters are acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.
is dependent on its location in the body. If it is located in
the dorsolateral pons it effects REM sleep (Carlson, 2013). REM sleep is that
state of sleep that allows us to dream. If acetylcholine is located in the
basal forebrain it effects our perceptual learning (Carlson, 2013). The last
place it is located is in the medial septum control which effects how
particular memories are formed (Carlson, 2013).
deals a lot with our movement, attention, and learning. When we
start to loss motor functions such as with Parkinson’s disease it is because
our dopamine is starting to die off.
Norepinephrine is the third neurotransmitter which controls
things such as emotions, attentiveness, sleeping, etc. Norepinephrine also
causes our blood vessels to contract which will increase our heart rate.
The last neurotransmitter is serotonin. Serotonin is the
neurotransmitter that regulates our mood, eating, sleep, arousal and pain
Carlson, N. R. (2013). Physiology
of Behavior (11th ed.). Retrieved from The University of
Phoenix eBook Collection database.